Category Archives: Communications

Make a Simple Intercom From a Pair of Old Corded Phones

From Makezine.com | By Jason Poel Smith

In a SHTF situation, this may work as an alternative to purchasing a military field phone set and is much more affordable. All you need is some very basic electronic and soldering skills to complete the set-up and make it fully functional. Scaling it up to utilize on your property should then be fairly easy.

“An intercom can be a useful tool or a fun toy. In this project, I am going to show you how to make a simple intercom using a pair of old corded telephones. This is an easy electronics project that is great for beginners and fun to do with children…”

READ MORE

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.

Spelling Out the Phonetic Alphabet

“The NATO phonetic alphabet, more accurately known as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet and also called the ICAO phonetic or ICAO spelling alphabet, as well as the ITU phonetic alphabet, is the most widely used spelling alphabet. Although often called “phonetic alphabets”, spelling alphabets are not associated with phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned code words acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet so that critical combinations of letters and numbers can be pronounced and understood by those who transmit and receive voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of language barriers or the presence of transmission static.” – Wikipedia

The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet based on a match to each code word’s first letter.

Letter    NATO Phonetic Code Word
A    Alpha
B    Bravo
C    Charlie
D    Delta
E    Echo
F    Foxtrot
G    Golf
H    Hotel
I    India
J    Juliet
K    Kilo
L    Lima
M    Mike
N    November
O    Oscar
P    Papa
Q    Quebec
R    Romeo
S    Sierra
T    Tango
U    Uniform
V    Victor
W    Whiskey
X    X-ray
Y    Yankee
Z    Zulu

This may come in very handy in a WROL situation where electronic communication goes primitive.

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.

Tuning a CB Radio Antenna

By CrypticCRICKET | On Feb 24th, 2012

In this video I show you how to tune a CB radio’s whip antenna using an SWR meter. The antenna that I tune up in this video is a RadioShack – 64″ base loaded whip antenna ( pt # 21-988 ). In my experience, this antenna should be mounted on a 4″ spring for best SWR’s. This rugged antenna has provided me with excellent service and it gets very high marks in user reviews.
Why tune an antenna? Well because an out of tune antenna can burn up the circuits inside a CB radio if the antenna is far enough out of tune. In an out of tune antenna, RF energy will not leave the antenna and it will be reflected back down your intenna and into your radios circuitry. Some newer radios have some protections built into them but those protections will lower your radio’s output power in order to protect the radios circuits. That means your radio won’t transmit as far. A good antenna, properly tuned, is the secret to getting the most from your Citizens Band or ham radio.

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.

The Standardized Amateur Radio Prepper Communications Plan

Catastrophe Network and The American Preparedness Radio Network (TAPRN) have teamed up to create a Standardized Amateur Radio Prepper Communications Plan. This plan outlines a standard set of frequencies that should be used by all preppers following a catastrophic disaster. These frequencies will serve as a meeting point where information about the event can be shared and actions between like minded preppers can be communicated.

This plan will not and cannot work if it is not widely publicized in the prepper community! All preppers must know and understand these frequencies in order for them to become common meeting points. This is your call to action, if you are a licensed Amateur Radio operator and a prepper, please spread the word about this new communications plan. Tweet about it, blog about it, and most of all…share the document!

Click here to download the latest copy of the Standardized Amateur Radio Prepper Communications Plan.

The following are the frequencies that have been designated by Catastrophe Network and the The American Preparedness Radio Network (TAPRN):

  • 80 Meters – 3.818 MHz LSB (TAPRN Net: Sundays at 9 PM ET)
  • 40 Meters – 7.242 MHz LSB
  • 40 Meters Morse Code / Digital – 7.073 MHz USB
  • 20 Meters – 14.242 MHz USB
  • 20 Meters Morse Code / Digital – 14.073 MHz USB
  • 2 Meters – 146.420 MHz FM
  • 440 (70 cm) – 446.420 MHz FM
  • FRS/GMRS – Channel 4 (462.6375 MHz)
  • CB – Channel 4 (27.005 MHz)
  • MURS – Channel 4 (154.570 MHz)

Aside from the TAPRN nets held on 3.818 and their digital net on 7.073, formal prepper nets will not be held on these frequencies. However, future exercises and drills may be held on-air between preppers and preppers are encouraged to use these frequencies to coordinate activities. Along the same lines, during catastrophes, it is unlikely that a formal net control will be established. The Standardized Amateur Radio Prepper Communications Plan outlines protocols for calling and communicating with other preppers.

Amateur Radio Stations using the Standardized Prepper frequencies of 3.818, 7.242, and 14.242 MHz transmit pertinent information in AM (Amplitude Modulation) mode rather than SSB (Single Sideband) mode so that those with less expensive shortwave receivers that do not receive SSB can still gather pertinent prepper information from the Amateur “Ham” Radio community.

Click here to list your GENERAL location on the map of Standardized Prepper Communications Plan users.


View Prepper Communications Map in a larger map

Plan News and Updates

11/01/2011 – The Plan was downloaded by nearly 1000 people within the first 24 hours. Keep up the good work in spreading the word. This plan will only work if we spread the word and everyone prints a copy for their station. Special thanks to @Hamradio_Ticker, @SelfReliantInfo, @PrepperWebsite, @TalkSouthRadio, @iSurvivalSkills, and @SurvivorJane for spreading the word on Twitter.

11/12/2011 – TAPRN has informed me that their Sunday night digital net is now using CONTESTIA 4/250 mode rather than PSK-31.  Consequently, the Plan has been updated to reflect this change.

12/31/2011 – I have updated the document, with a minor revision to include a © on the document for prosperity purposes. I still want everyone to distribute the document as widely as possible. However, some people have been using the document without giving any credit to Catastrophe Network and even taking credit for creating the document themselves. I also added the document to Scribd and embeded it below. This will make sharing it even easier!

01/15/2012 – I recently received an email from a fellow Amateur Radio Operator by the name of Bart who pointed out to me that Morse code, also known as CW in the Amateur Radio community, should be included in the plan because it is one of the most basic, yet effective and energy efficient modes in existence. My original intent was to include the TAPRN digital frequency as a general purpose “digital” frequency, which would include Morse code, since it is really a very basic digital mode. However, the specific mention of CONTESTA was made beacuse that is what TAPRN used for their Sunday nets. With that said, I would like to state clearly that any digital mode, including Morse code, could be used 7.073 in accordance with the plan. I have updated the plan to reflect this change.

07/03/2012 – TAPRN participation on the digital frequency of 7.073 MHz has been discontinued. This frequency will continue to be used as the standard prepper morse code / digital frequency. In addition, the Standardized Amateur Radio Communications Plan was recently published in a booked entitled “Survival Communications” by John Parnell. Please patronize his books, as they are a great reference book for communications, customized by state! You can find his website at http://www.tutorturtlepress.com/.

08/12/2012 – Non-Amateur Radio channels have been added to the Standardized Amateur Radio Prepper Communications Plan in order to facilitate prepper communications in the non-ham radio bands. The following additions are being made:

  • FRS/GMRS (Family Radio Service/General Mobile Radio Service) Channel 4 (462.6375 MHz) be designated for “prepper” use in local communities.
  • CB (Citizens Band) Channel 4 (27.005 MHz) be designated for “prepper” use in local communities
  • MURS (Multi-Use Radio Service) Channel 4 (154.570 MHz) be designated for “prepper” use in local communities.
  • Amateur Radio Stations using the Standardized Prepper frequencies of 3.818, 7.242, and 14.242 MHz transmit pertinent information in AM (Amplitude Modulation) mode rather than SSB (Single Sideband) mode so that those with less expensive shortwave receivers that do not receive SSB can still gather pertinent prepper information from the Amateur “Ham” Radio community.

09/30/2012 – A 20 meter digital frequency of 14.073 USB and a 70 cm amateur radio frequency of 446.420 FM have been added to the plan. In addition, a map has been added that will allow preppers who plan to use these frequencies to register their general location and their capabilities so that other preppers in the same general area know how to contact each other. Click here to list your location.

Questions or Ideas?

If you have questions or ideas about the Standardized Amateur Radio Prepper Communications Plan or would like to get involved, email me at admin@catastrophenetwork.org

Source: http://www.catastrophenetwork.org/?page_id=446

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.

Preparedness: The MSO Minuteman Protocol

By Rourke | From ModernSurvivalOnline.com | On Monday, Marc h 11th, 2013

msomen

A Minuteman is someone who is prepared – at a moment’s notice – to respond to whatever situation they may be confronted with. It may be a simple power outage. It may be suddenly finding yourself near a mass shooting in a mall. It could be walking into a situation

where your neighbors are getting assaulted by some drug addicts. It may be a breakdown of society and you find yourself and family in a world without rule of law.

Regardless—you need to be ready. You need to be a Minuteman.

Summary: What follows is a suggested “system” or template which one could follow and adapt to their particular needs and circumstances. A variety of minimum equipment/supply levels are listed.

People who read this document will live in many different states, have different economic capabilities, geographical conditions, and have a variety of environmental challenges which to deal with. This means that no single, individual system recommendation will work for all.

MSO Minutemen are made up of men and women from all religions, races, and nationalities. We all want to work, provide for our families, and live our existence on our terms. We believe in what the Founding Fathers of this country created many years ago. We believe in the Constitution.

We also believe that we all have a responsibility to provide and care for our communities and prepare for concerning times ahead. This preparation towards readiness combines food storage, water, defensive equipment, and gear which can be used in case of a power outage or a major supply chain interruption – or worse.

****************************************************************

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

****************************************************************

Being a Minuteman does not mean that you are radical, anti-government, or unpatriotic. As a matter of fact as a Minuteman you should back the US Constitution 100%, and this Republic called the United States of America. You should also support peaceful, democratic methods which to guide and create positive change for America.

This country’s economic welfare, morality, and socioeconomic state are in a free fall towards a destructive demise. I hope what follows provides some guidance and provokes thought on how to be ready….”just in case”.

LEVEL I – Basics

This is not an all-knowing, endless list of all supplies that any Minuteman could ever need. Rather, it is just template which to follow and provide ideas. Customize your own individual system to fit your needs and situation.

SUPPLIES

soupFood – Most any serious emergency will disrupt the normal distribution of food. It is critically important to maintain enough food reserves to make it through until things return to normal. How long will that be? That is the $100,000 dollar question. We recommend for Level I to have at least a one month reserve of food.

A one month food storage supply for one person can be put together with commonly found food from at any grocery store. The saying – “Store what you eat and eat what you store.” holds true. What follows is an example of a One Month Food Supply for one person:

20 cans             soups

15 cans             beef stew

30 cans             vegetables

15 cans             fruit

2 lrg boxes        Pancake mix (add-water-only)

2 bottles            Syrup

2 boxes             saltine crackers/whole wheat crackers

2 jars                peanut butter

15 boxes           pasta/spaghetti

15 jars              spaghetti sauce

15 cans             baked beans

20 cans             meat/Spam

15 bars             candy bars/nutrition bars

This is not a perfect diet by any means; however it does provide plenty of calories and variety for one person for at least 30 days. In addition to the food items – plan on alternative methods for cooking and preparing food should the power go out.

waterWater – There is a commonly used adage that in an emergency the minimum water requirements are one gallon per person per day. This is the minimum depending upon activity and likely is not enough. For the MSO Minuteman, store as much water as you can – with Level I recommending at least 30+ gallons for each person.

What follows is an example of a One Month Water Supply for one person:

12 jugs, gal.      Spring water from local grocery store

3 cases             Bottled drinking water, cases of 24 bottles

3 jugs               7-gallon Blue containers, available at Wal-Mart/Amazon.com

Beyond water storage – the ability to filter water should be prepared for and considered. A common Brita-brand water filter is excellent for filtering out small foreign particles – however they will not work for water that may have pathogens or bacteria. With this in mind – it is recommended that a LifeStraw Water Filtration Straw be stored for each person.

fakitMedicalThe category “Medical” covers both first aid as well as other medical considerations. A good basic First Aid Kit is a requirement, along with some other first aid supplies. Should you have health issues requiring prescriptions or other necessary items – those should be stocked to have at least a one month supply.

Suggested Level I Supply List:

target2Defense – Firearms are a critical part of any Minuteman’s system. In fact – many would argue that it is THE most important part. In a serious SHTF or WROL (Without Rule of Law) event  – law abiding citizens will be preyed upon by criminals and thugs. It is up to the Minuteman to defend themselves, their families, and their neighbors.

ar15

The Minuteman is to be at the ready at all times to respond. With this said – they must be able to grab their firearms, their gear – and react.

Here is the recommended minimal equipment for Level I:

  • Rifle – any long gun that can be shot reliably and accurately
  • Ammunition – minimum 250 rounds of ammunition
  • Carrying System – system to carry ammunition, firearm(s), magazines, etc.
  • Gun Cleaning Kit

Method for carrying defensive supplies:

In order to achieve the “grab-and-go” concept there must be a system in place by which to transport needed defensive equipment efficiently. Whether a Winchester 94 lever-action .30-30 is your rifle of choice or an AR-15 – extra ammunition and other defensive supplies need to be at the ready at all times. Generally – this is achieved through a variety of pouches, packs, bags and vests.

condorvest2

For the Level I Minuteman – develop a system for carrying extra ammunition and magazines that fits your budget and is comfortable to use. Once decided on – practice with that system over and over again.

One possible solution for carry a defense load is the tactical load bearing vest. One inexpensive example is the Condor Modular Chest Rig running under $40.00 at time of publishing.

Another possible “grab-and-go” carry option for defensive gear is the 5.11 Bail Out Bag. Basically, the 5.11 is a shoulder bag with multiple compartments including magazine pockets in the outside for AR magazines.

Bottom Line: A system must be developed so that in about a “minute” your main battle weapon and needed supplies can be grabbed and you can go to where you need to be.

Rourke's rig

Rourke’s rig

SKILLS – Skills are the most underrated and under-discussed aspects of preparedness. To be part of the MSOnline Minutemen System – certain skills are necessary.

Here is the recommended minimal skills for Level I:

  • Basic First Aid Skills – take a basic first aid course or at a minimum self-study reading and watching video’s. Be able to:
    • Treat cuts, scrapes, and abrasions
    • Know the steps to stop bleeding
    • Identify hyperthermia, heat stroke/exhaustion – and how to treat
    • Apply a splint
    • Identify and treat shock
  • Breakdown carried firearms, clean, and reassemble

plansPLANS & INFORMATION – What happens if power is lost through an area and there is no method for communication with loved ones? Does everyone know what to do? This is the premise of this section – making plans “just in case”.

Here are the suggested plans to make for Level I:

  • Power Outage – everyone in the household needs to know what to do if there is a power outage. Don’t open the fridge, know where flashlights are, stay warm in winter time, radio for news, etc.
  • Significant Event/Danger – What will each member of the family do in the event of a significant event such as a terrorist attack? Communications may be down and family and friends may be away from home. Who will get the kids from school? How will everyone get home from work? What if?…….
  • Simple Vehicle Breakdown – car breaks down on the way home from work – then what? What if someone can’t be reached via cell phone? Are there numbers for local tow trucks in the glove box? How about an AAA membership?

Everyone’s potential problems and solutions will be different. Think of what plans and procedures need to be made as part of your Minuteman Protocol System.

MISC GEAR CHECKLIST – here is a basic list of general supplies that should be stored and readily available in case of an emergency.

Recommended Books – here are a few recommended books related to defense and preparedness and would fit well in any Minuteman’s library.

Summary – This completes the template for the ModernSurvivalOnline: The Minuteman Protocol – Level I. This is considered a minimal template for preparedness.

Remember – the Minuteman Protocol is to be at the ready, so in a moments notice you will be ready to defend your family, your loved ones, your property and supplies…..and your country. The MSO Minuteman is honest, has integrity – and is proud to do the right things. The Minuteman holds close those values which built this great country over 200 years ago.

This Level I Template is available for download HERE.  Please feel free to download and share.

– Rourke

Source: http://modernsurvivalonline.com/mso-minuteman-protocol-part-i/

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.

Some Simple COMSEC Measures

By Partisan | from GuerillaAmerica.com | On Wednesday, February 6th, 2013

For the uninitiated, COMSEC is military jargon for Communications Security. COMSEC is widely practiced in the military and is becoming more and more important for civilians who have privacy and information they’d like to protect.

I recently made contact with a militia organization in my new state. I was altogether reluctant to join one, and having yet to join one, I still am. I don’t like to detract from militias because I agree with the Framers of the Constitution in that they are necessary to the security of a free State. (I am cautious, however, about what organizations I align myself with. One could invite suspicion or investigation just by being on the muster of a militia or other organization engaged in illegal activities. Those criminal activities, while not characterizing most militias, are well-documented and people have gone to prison for a long time upon conviction. I would not, and I don’t suggest that any reader of this blog belong to an organization involved in criminal activity; resistance to unconstitutional laws being barred.)

I initiated communication on Facebook of all places, albeit through an alternate account. (This violates their TOS but I consider personal privacy well worth the risk, and would recommend that you consider using a “mule” or alternate account. This isn’t to hide what I say from federal authorities – no need – but rather to protect my personal privacy when dealing with complete strangers.) I have serious concerns about security and privacy on Facebook, so I keep things very light and use details very sparingly. I was directed to a “recruiter” with whom I later chatted. Without giving you a play by play, I suggested that he and I meet face to face but he wasn’t very interested. I told him that I would drive down to his location and that he could call me on that day to tell me a specific public meeting place. I know, I know – very over the top for perfectly legal activities. But at the present time and continuing into the future, linking up with strangers may be very dangerous. Just ask the murder or kidnap victims of Craigslist and online dating sites. He ended up giving me his personal cell phone number which was tracked back directly to him using a simple online search. I confirmed some personal and biographical details of this stranger as well. Personally, I was just curious to see who he was.

At this point, I’ll just state the obvious: giving out your personal cell number to strangers isn’t the greatest idea. What I would suggest to him, should he read this blog, and to you, is this:

A few months ago I went to Best Buy and for less than $20 cash purchased two disposable cell phones. They aren’t traceable to me, contain no personal information, have no other contacts (short of calls and text messages), can use numerous SIM cards, and can be traded or thrown away at very little cost to me. I will contact him using this phone. The bonus is that, unlike an iPhone, the battery can be removed, rendering any triangulation of your current location impossible.

As a frequent user of Craigslist and other local classifieds, I never use my own number. You never know what kind of crazy person you might get in contact with, and when they start texting or calling you with inappropriate material or at inappropriate times, you’ll thank yourself.

Source: http://guerrillamerica.com/2013/02/some-simple-comsec-measures/

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.

New ‘Riot’ Software Allows Government To Track Users Of Social Media

By Liz Klimas | From TheBlaze.com | On Tuesday, February 12th,2013

A top government defense contractor revealed it created software that can sift through social media sites to collect information from “trillions of entities” in order to reasonably predict a person’s next move.

The spokesperson for the Massachusetts-based company Raytheon, Jared Adams, told The Guardian in an email that it developed RIOT (Rapid Information Overlay Technology), which is “a big data analytics system design we are working on with industry, national labs and commercial partners to help turn massive amounts of data into usable information to help meet our nation’s rapidly changing security needs.”

The Guardian obtained a video showing Raytheon’s Brian Urch explaining the RIOT software and how it uses photographs that are embedded with location data (generally they’re taken by smartphones) to conduct analysis about where the person was and where they might be going next.

Raytheon RIOT Software Predicts Peoples Movements Based on Social Media Information
This image shows where a Raytheon employee had checked in with his smartphone. (Image: The Guardian video screenshot)

Urch explains in the video that the software uses Facebook, Twitter and Foursquare. He tracks one of Raytheon’s own employees as an example. He shows all the places the employee — Nick — checked in with his smartphone. Then Urch goes to look for photos.

Raytheon RIOT Software Predicts Peoples Movements Based on Social Media Information
Now they can see what Nick looks like. (Image: The Guardian video screenshot)

“One of the things we’ve noticed is that when people take pictures and post them on the Internet using their smartphones that the phone will actually embed the latitude and longitude using the exif header data,” Urch said. “Now we know where Nick’s going, what he looks like, now we want to predict where he may be in the future.”

By using a “very basic analytic” called “get top places,” Urch shows a pie chart that breaks down the top 10 places where Nick checks in. He is able to analyze check ins at a specific place by month and day. For example, Nick checks in the most at the gym. June was found to hold his highest gym attendance, and he seems to go more frequently on Mondays and Wednesdays. And the “most interesting” bit of info is that Urch is able to show the time when Nick most likely would be there — 6 a.m.

Raytheon RIOT Software Predicts Peoples Movements Based on Social Media Information
A look into the specifics of Nick’s daily schedule based on check-in trends. (Image: The Guardian video screenshot)

“If you ever did want to try to get a hold of Nick or maybe get a hold of his laptop, you might want to visit the gym at 6 a.m. on Monday,” Urch said.

The software also shows the people with whom Nick has some sort of connection, whether they be tagged in checkins or shout outs on Twitter.

Raytheon RIOT Software Predicts Peoples Movements Based on Social Media Information
A web of Nick’s connections with other people. Some phone numbers were included too. (Image: The Guardian video screenshot)

Watch the demo, which The Guardian says Raytheon did not want released as it is a proof-of-concept:

The Guardian reports that this software has not been sold, but it was shared with the U.S. government as it was part of a join research effort that took place in 2010 to develop a system that could analyze “trillions of entities” on the Web.

The Guardian dubs the software  a “Google for spies” given that it has a similar look and search function. The company filed for a patent for RIOT in December and is expected to feature the program at an industry conference in April, according to The Guardian.

If you haven’t come up with your own concerns over the use of such technology, here is what The Guardian reported the Electronic Privacy Information Center’s attorney Ginger McCall saying:

“Social networking sites are often not transparent about what information is shared and how it is shared,” McCall said. “Users may be posting information that they believe will be viewed only by their friends, but instead, it is being viewed by government officials or pulled in by data collection services like the Riot search.”

While some have called it “stalking software,” ZDNet’s Steven Vaughan-Nichols pointed out it’s “business as usual”:

Here’s the simple truth: If you put your personal details on the Internet, especially on the social networks, it doesn’t require any fancy defense contractor software to track your every move. The social networks themselves can do it. Advertisers can do it. Anyone with a lick of computer sense can do it.

If you want to keep your private life private, you have to keep it off the Internet. It’s really that easy.

This also isn’t the first time that the government has had an interest in monitoring social media for national security measures. For several years the government has been monitoring Twitter and even has a media monitoring component that can tracks journalists who post publicly on traditional and social media.

This article was originally posted at http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/02/12/major-defense-company-develops-software-for-government-to-track-trillions-of-entities-for-national-security/

PG
About The Author: RSOP is the co-founder & Executive Editor of Radical Survivalism Webzine, as well as a Family Preparedness Consultant with nearly five years of personal experience in the self-reliance game. RSOP's many preparedness roles within his own group include team mechanic, head of security, electrician, and project designer/engineer.